City of San Diego dismisses UCPG Planning Group Concerns on Pure Water Pipeline

UCCA San Diego

The city has big plans for a water reclamation program known as Pure Water. The final Environmental Impact Report (EIR) was recently released and City Council will be voting whether to approve the project on April 10th, 2018   Phase one of this water reclamation project could produce 30 million gallons a day of potable water.  It is hoped that when the entire project is complete, it would provide up to one third of San Diego’s drinking water by 2035.

Phase one of the project is scheduled to be complete in 2021 and cost $1.2 billion.  The entire project is expected to cost $3 billion, of which $2.3 billion would be provided by the EPA in low interest loans to the city of San Diego.  This project serves two purposes:  reducing dependency on imported water; and reducing the amount of solid waste being process at the Point Loma Sewage treatment facility.

The Pure Water project consists of pump stations, pipelines, solid waste recovery, and the water reclamation facility.  The water reclamation processing will take place at a facility just east of 805, between Miramar and Eastgate Mall.  The Morena Pump station will be located just northeast of the I-8/I-5 interchange.  The Morena pipelines will run between the Morena Pump station and the Pure Water plant (NCWRP); to be built under Morena Boulevard, Clairemont Drive, Genesee Avenue, Nobel Drive and Town Center Drive.

This pipeline would have a large pipe (48” diameter) to transport the raw sewage upstream to the NCWRP, and a smaller pipe (30” diameter) to transport the brine/centrate back to the Morena Pipeline.  The pipeline is to be placed along existing right of way of city streets – it will cross several canyons and mesas – requiring pumps to move the sewage up and down the hills between the locations.

The portion of the forcemains that impacts us here in UC is the part that runs north from Clairemont along Genesee, then east on Nobel, and north on Town Center Drive.  Most of the pipeline will be placed by trenching the roadways deep enough to place the 48” pipe and the 30” pipe 5-8’ below the surface, and below existing utilities.  The trench is expected to be 12-16 feet wide and will require lane closures during construction.  Additionally there will be tunnels bored to run the pipeline under San Clemente creek at the Genesee and 52 intersection, and under Rose Creek and the railroad tracks near Centurion Square, and another tunnel under I-805 from the end of Executive.

Of specific concern are the intersections of Genesee and Governor and the corner of Nobel and Genesee.   Genesee and Governor is a critical intersection for South UC.  Governor is the only East West connector for emergency vehicles.   There is also a high risk to encounter contaminated soil from leaking underground gas storage tanks.  Three of the four gas stations at the intersection have active status for leaking underground storage tanks.  If the trenching encounters contaminated soil, additional steps must be taken to handle this soil.  The risk of contaminated dust being generated increases.  This intersection is adjacent to Curie Elementary School, Regency Villas Senior community, All Saints Preschool, and Standley Middle School.  Seniors and children could be at risk if contaminated soil is encountered.  EPA processes would be triggered.

At Nobel and Genesee there are two residential communities on the south side of Nobel that have already had major impacts of construction from the trolley construction and Westfield renovation.   The Westfield residential tower is currently under construction, impacting traffic, creating dust and making noise.  It will not be completed till late 2019 to early 2020.   If it is approved the proposed Costa Verde expansion is also slated to start construction in 2019.   The cumulative impact on the residents from all of this construction was minimized and misrepresented in the final EIR.

The construction along Genesee will be done at night between 9pm and 5am.  It will be between 8:30 and 3:30 on Towne Center between Nobel and La Jolla Village, and between 7:30 and 4:30 on Nobel.

Once the pipeline is under operation there is a risk of rupture or leak of the pressurized sewage.  There is also the risk of noise due to ‘water hammering’ as the pressure changes when it goes up and down the canyons.  And there is a risk of odor at the relief valves.  One of the valves will be just north of Governor Drive.

The local planning group, UCPG, formed a subcommittee to review the draft EIR and submit a response.   The UCPG submitted a letter produced by the subcommittee expressing their concerns about construction impacts and whether it was appropriate to run this pipeline through a residential neighborhood and expressed concern of risk of sewage spill if the pipeline breaks or leaks.  The city dismissed these concerns.   The draft and final EIRs did not present alternative pipeline alignments and the Morena pipeline alignment was not presented to the public till the draft EIR stage.  UCPG proposed several alternative pipeline alignments, including one that the city had studied prior to the draft EIR, which would run under the SDG&E high power lines.  Please see graphic.  The city rejected all alternatives in their final EIR.

The Morena Pipeline is scheduled to commence construction in April 2019 and last through October 2021. The Final EIR is available on the city’s website at https://www.sandiego.gov/water/purewater/purewatersd/reports


Notice of Public Hearing: On April 10, the San Diego City Council is scheduled to hear the case for approving the City’s Pure Water Project at 2:00 pm (Council Chambers, 12th Floor, 202 “C” Street). UCCA, UCPG, and UCCF have all voiced opposition, not to the project itself, but to the sewer pipe alignment along Morena Drive, Clairemont Drive, Genesee Avenue,  Nobel and Town Center Drive. 

Those unable to attend the hearing may express support or opposition to this issue before the date of the hearing and decision by City Council. All communications will be forwarded to the Mayor and Council members. To ensure that Council Members receive your comment before they vote on April 10, email or fax by end of day April 9.

LIFE CHANGING REASONS TO DRINK MORE WATER

Has it occurred to you today that you are thirsty? Guess what – by the time you experience the sensation of the thirst, you are already dehydrated. That thirst is your body calling for re-hydration.

 

Your body is composed of roughly 60% water1. That means when we are dehydrated – and most of us spend our days constantly dehydrated to some degree – we are affecting the performance of the majority of our body. Nearly all of our systems do not function as well without the proper water intake.

 

So, really, what does this mean? Why should we drink more water?

 

  1. If you don’t drink water, you will die. It’s that important. Depending on our environment, we can live only a few days without water – maybe a week. We can live much longer without food. For most of us, we should prioritize the consumption of water far more than we currently do.
  2. Prevent cancer. Yes, that’s right – various research says staying hydrated can reduce risk of colon cancer by 45%5, bladder cancer by 50%6, and possibly reduce breast cancer risk as well.7
  3. Be less cranky. Research says dehydration can affect your mood and make you grumpy and confused.3 Think clearer and be happier by drinking more water.
  4. Perform better. Proper hydration contributes to increased athletic performance. Water composes 75% of our muscle tissue!4 Dehydration can lead to weakness, fatigue, dizziness, and electrolyte imbalance.
  5. Lose weight. Sometimes we think we are hungry, when actually we are thirsty. Our body just starts turning on all the alarms when we ignore it. For those of you trying to drop some pounds, staying hydrated can serve as an appetite suppressant and help with weight loss.
  6. Have less joint pain. Drinking water can reduce pain in your joints by keeping the cartilage soft and hydrated. This is actually how glucosamine helps reduce joint pain, by aiding in cartilage’s absorption of water.
  7. Flush out waste and bacteria. Our digestive system needs water to function properly. Waste is flushed out in the form of urine and sweat. If we don’t drink water, we don’t flush out waste and it collects in our body causing a myriad of problems. Also combined with fiber, water can cure constipation.
  8. Prevent headaches. Sometimes headaches can be caused by dehydration, so drinking water can prevent or alleviate that nasty head pain. Next time your head hurts, try drinking water.
  9. Make your skin glow. Our skin is the largest organ in our body. Regular and plentiful water consumption can improve the color and texture of your skin by keeping it building new cells properly. Drinking water also helps the skin do it’s job of regulating the body’s temperature through sweating.2
  10. Feed your body. Water is essential for the proper circulation of nutrients in the body. Water serves at the body’s transportation system and when we are dehydrated things just can’t get around as well.
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WATER & YOU

water-health-weight-loss-infographic

What is so cool about water? Read all these amazing facts!

Pour yourself a glass of water and you could be drinking some of the same molecules that passed through the lips of Julius Caesar, Joan of Arc, Martin Luther King, or Adolf Hitler. Indeed, since the human body is about 60 percent water you might even be drinking a tiny part of one of those people! Water is one of the most amazing things about Earth; without it, there would be no life and our planet would be a completely different place. One of the truly amazing things about water is that it’s never used up: it’s just recycled over and over again, constantly moving between the plants, animals, rivers, and seas on Earth’s surface and the atmosphere up above. Let’s take a look at this life-giving liquid and find out what makes it so special!

Photo: Water covers over two thirds of Earth’s surface and is an essential ingredient for all the flourishing life our planet enjoys—including this lily of the valley plant.

What is water?

We can answer that question in many different ways. Water is what wets windows when it rains, what we drink when we feel thirsty, and what covers about 70% of Earth’s surface. But what exactly is it?

Chemically speaking, water is a liquid substance made of molecules—a single, large drop of water weighing 0.1g contains about 3 billion trillion (3,000,000,000,000,000,000,000) of them! Each molecule of water is made up of three atoms: two hydrogen atoms locked in a sort of triangle with one oxygen atom—giving us the famous chemical formula H2O. The slightly imbalanced structure of water molecules (explained in the box below) means they attract and stick to many different substances. That’s also why all kinds of things will dissolve in water, which is sometimes called a “universal solvent”. Water can even dissolve the solid rocks from which our planet is made, though the process does take many years, decades, or even centuries.

Three states of water: solid snow on a beach, with liquid sea, and gaseous steam (clouds) up above.

Most of the water in our world is a combination of “ordinary” hydrogen atoms with “ordinary” oxygen atoms, but there are actually three different istopes (atomic varieties) of hydrogen and each of those can combine with oxygen to give a different kind of water. If deuterium (hydrogen whose atoms contain one neutron and one proton instead of just one proton by itself) combines with oxygen, we get something called heavy water, which is about 10% heavier than normal water. Similarly, tritium (hydrogen with two neutrons and one proton) can combine with oxygen to make something called superheavy water.

Water has no end of amazing properties. It comes in three wildly different kinds, it’s heavy, it expands in a funny way, it can climb up walls, and… oh let’s find out more!

Water, ice, and steam

One of the unique things about water in the world around us is that it exists in three very different forms (or states of matter as they are known): solid, liquid, and gas. Ordinary, liquid water is the most familiar to us because water is a liquid under everyday conditions, but we’re also very familiar with solid water (ice) and gaseous water (steam and water vapor) as well.

Photo: Looking out to sea from my local beach on the three states of matter that water can assume. It’s February, so that’s snow (solid water) covering the beach itself. The ocean is liquid water. Up above in the sky, the clouds contain water vapor (water in gaseous form).

Converting water between these three different states is remarkably easy. All you have to do is change its temperature or pressure. Take some ice and heat it up and you’ll soon have a pool of liquid water. Carry on heating it and the water will evaporate and become steam. It takes a terrific amount of energy to turn ice into water and water into steam because you have to physically rearrange the structure of the substance in each case and push the molecules further apart. That’s why kettles take so long to boil. (There’s an easier way to turn water from a solid or liquid into a gas and that’s simply to leave it out in the open air; gradually, the more energetic molecules in the water will escape and turn into a cool vapor up above it.)

Steam and geothermal energy from geysers

Photo: Steam geysers are produced when water is heated by Earth’s internal heat (geothermal energy). Picture by Robert Blackett, Utah Geological Survey, courtesy of US Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL).

When you heat water to make steam, there comes a point where you keep heating the water but the temperature doesn’t increase. The energy you supply seems to be vanishing into thin air, but it’s actually pushing apart the molecules in liquid water and turning them into a gas. In the process, that energy is becoming locked inside the steam as something called latent heat (the word latent just means “hidden”). Latent heat is like an immense reserve of energy locked in steam that the inventors of yesteryear used to power factory machines and vehicles using their mighty steam engines. Read more in our main article on heat.

Why does water make pressure?

If you’ve ever found yourself washing a car with buckets or watering a garden with cans, you’ll have noticed just how heavy water can be. That’s because it’s a relatively dense substance (it packs an awful lot of mass into a relatively small space). Water isn’t dense compared to metals such as gold, which is almost 20 times heavier by volume. But it’s much heavier and denser than wood and plastic, which is why those things will float. Anything less dense than water floats on it; anything more dense sinks in it.

The weight of water is what causes pressure in the oceans to increase with depth. The deeper you go, the more water there is up above you pressing down—and that makes things particularly challenging for submarine designers and scuba divers. Water pressure increases in direct proportion to your depth, so if you go down 100 meters the pressure is ten times greater than if you go down 10 meters. Just imagine walking on the seabed with lots of buckets of water pressing down on your head. At a depth of about 10 km (6 miles) under the oceans, the pressure is as great as the weight of a fully-loaded articulated lorry pressing down on an area the size of your two feet!

Why does water expand when it freezes?

Everyone knows things get bigger when they get hotter and shrink when they cool. Thermometers tell the temperature that way because the (liquid) mercury metal inside them expands as it heats up and contracts when it cools down. But water is different. Almost uniquely, water expands as it starts to freeze! This amazing trick is called the anomalous expansion of water—and here’s how it works.

If you start off with a glass of water and cool it down, the molecules start to move closer and lock together. But at a temperature of about 4°C (39°F), the molecules are as close as they can possibly get. In other words, the water has reached its maximum density. If you keep on cooling it down, the molecules rearrange themselves into a slightly more open structure. This means ice is a little bit less dense than freezing water and that’s why ice floats on water that’s the same temperature. That’s extremely important for fish and all kinds of other river and sea creatures, because it means they can survive in winter in the liquid water underneath solid frozen ice.

Ice

Unfortunately, people don’t always find the anomalous expansion of water so helpful. If the water pipes running under your home freeze solid in winter, the water inside them will turn to ice that takes up more volume—causing the pipes to burst open and then leak when the ice thaws out. Why don’t we simply use stronger pipes? It wouldn’t make much difference: water expands with incredible force when it freezes and even very thick metal pipes would still burst. You can watch a superb video demonstration of a bursting pipe from Steve Spangler.

Photo: Ice in the Wichita Mountains. Picture by Elise Smith courtesy of US Fish & Wildlife Service.

Why does water take so long to heat up?

Has that kettle boiled yet? Well tell it to hurry up—I’m dying for a cup of tea! It may be a nuisance if you’re cooking or making drinks, but the length of time it takes water to absorb heat is very useful to us in other ways. Water has a high specific heat capacity and that means it can hold or carry more heat per kilogram (or pound) than virtually any other substance. That’s why we use water in heating systems such as radiators, because each liter of water that trickles through the pipes carries and delivers more heat. Of course the drawback is that the water takes some time to heat up in the first place.

Why can insects walk on water?

You’ve probably seen insects that can walk on water. They’re supported by a kind of invisible “structure” on the surface known as surface tension. It happens because water molecules attract very strongly to one another—that’s also why water forms droplets on windows rather than spreading out in a perfectly thin film, as oil would. Imagine all the drops in a basin full of water trying to attract one another. Effectively, they’re “linking arms” and forming an invisible skin on the surface that’s strong enough to support things like needles and razor blades that are heavy enough to sink. All kinds of insects, including spiders, pondskaters, and water boatmen, use surface tension to move across water. In theory, you could walk on water too if you could spread your weight across a big enough area to take advantage of surface tension.

How does water climb up a tube?

Put some water in a glass and you’ll see that it doesn’t form a perfectly straight surface: it actually climbs up the glass slightly more at the edges, forming a downward curving surface called a concave meniscus. The thinner you make the glass (that is, the smaller the diameter it is), the more the water will climb. Put water in a narrow glass rod and you can make it climb up quite a distance. This is known as capillary action or capillarity. It’s how blood moves through our veins and how water is sucked up through the stems of plants and trees. Capillarity helps a large oak tree to suck up something like 380 liters (100 gallons) of water each day!

Learn more about water filters

The Facts About Water Filters

You may think that one water filter is as good as another, but think again. The filter you buy on impulse may not be keeping your family safe.

Water FilterBeverage companies have made a fortune on marketing bottled water on the premise that it’s “pure,” from “pristine, natural sources,” and thereby safer than tap water. Bottled water marketing campaigns have been so successful in making people suspicious of their tap water, that sales skyrocketed 700 percent between 1997 and 2005. Skyrocketing as well—the environmental degradation, landfill waste, and human rights abuses associated with bottled water. Plus, studies have shown that it’s no safer than tap water (see below).

There’s a much better option for ensuring that the water you and your family drink is as safe as it can be: a water filter. Putting a water filter in your home is less expensive and far less environmentally damaging than bottled water. And if you choose the right filter, you can minimize or eliminate the contaminants of highest concern in your area. Here’s what you need to know. …
How Safe Is Public Water?
Under the Safe Water Drinking Act, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for setting national drinking water standards. The EPA regulates over 80 contaminants—including arsenic, e-coli, cryptosporidia, chlorine, and lead—that may be found in drinking water from public water systems. While the EPA says that 90 percent of US public water systems meet its standards, you may want to use a water filter to further ensure your water’s safety.

A 2003 study by the nonprofit Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) found that due to a combination of pollution and deteriorating equipment and pipes, the public water supplies in 19 of America’s largest cities delivered drinking water that contained contaminant levels exceeding EPA limits (either legal limits or unenforceable suggested limits) and may pose health risks to some residents. So even though it may test fine at its source, public water may still pick up contaminants on the way to your house.

Contaminants that sneaked into city water supplies studied by the NRDC include rocket fuel, arsenic, lead, fecal waste, and chemical by-products created during water treatment.

“Exposure to the contaminants [sometimes found in public and private drinking water] can cause a number of health problems, ranging from nausea and stomach pain to developmental problems and cancer,” notes Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR) in its booklet, Drinking Water: What Health Care Providers Should Know. PSR estimates that up to 900,000 people get sick and 900 die in the US per year from contaminated public and private drinking water. Despite the problems with public water, it’s still just as safe as bottled water, despite the billions of dollars beverage companies spend to make you think bottled is better. (For more information, see below.)
Step One: Assess Your Tap Water
There isn’t a one-type-fits-all kind of water filter: not every filter type will eliminate every contaminant. You’ll save money and ensure that you’re targeting the contaminants of concern in your area by doing a little research up front.

“Most people purchase the wrong equipment because they skip this very important step, and then they’ve wasted money and resources on a system that isn’t making their water any safer,” says James P. McMahon

To start, check your water utility’s “Consumer Confidence Report,” which it must mail to you each year before July 1 by law. The report details where your drinking water comes from, what contaminants have been found in it, and how contaminant levels compare to national standards. You can also call your utility and ask for a copy, or visit http://www.epa.gov/safewater to see if it’s online.

For help reading the report, visit NSF International’s Web site.

While your report can tell you what’s going on with the water in your area, only a test of the water coming out of your tap will tell you what you and your family are drinking for sure. To find a state-certified lab to test your water (which will charge a fee) visit the EPA’s Safe water Web site, or call the EPA’s Safe Water Hotline at 800/426-4791.

If your water comes from a private well, it’s not regulated at all by the EPA, so you should have your water tested annually in late spring (when pesticide runoff will be at its worst), and anytime you notice a change in your water.
Step Two: Find the Best Type
Water filters come in a dizzying variety, from plastic pitcher filters and built-in refrigerator filters, to faucet and under-the-sink filters, to whole-house models that combine a variety of media types and treat all of the water in your house. What type you want depends on your needs.

If, after examining your Consumer Confidence Report (or, preferably, your current and several past reports), you find that your water regularly tests better than EPA levels, you may just want a filter that can remove the chemicals your local utility uses to treat the water.

These chemicals may or may not show up on your report. Call and ask your utility if it uses chlorine, a suspected respiratory and neurological toxin, or chloramine, a suspected blood and respiratory toxin. Chlorine combines with organic elements during the water treatment process to produce carcinogenic by-products.

The best type of filter to remove chlorine and its byproducts is a combination carbon/KDF adsorption filter (not to be confused with “absorption”), which range from shower and faucet filters to sink and whole-house filters, like those from Filtercon. www.filtercon.com  A regular carbon filter won’t remove chloramine, so look for a catalytic carbon filter instead

If you only have one or two contaminants, a smaller unit, such as a countertop or under-the-sink filter, may meet your needs. To find a filter certified to remove the contaminants you’re most concerned about, visit the NSF’s online database.

Finally, if you find your water has serious safety issues, consider a multi-stage filter that can tackle a variety of contaminants. Many combine a variety of filter types (see the box below for an overview). Filtercon sells multi-stage whole-house or sink filters, for example, that combine KDF and carbon adsorption with ultraviolet light, among other steps—and it also sells customized filters.


Step Three: Look at the Labels

Some experts recommend looking for a filter certified by NSF International, a nonprofit organization that conducts safety testing for the food and water industries. NSF tests and certifies water filters to ensure that they both meet NSF safety standards and are effective at removing contaminants as claimed by the manufacturer. Underwriters Laboratories and the Water Quality Association also offer similar certification, based on NSF standards.

NSF has different certifications, so when you read the label, first make sure it says the filter will remove the contaminants you’re most concerned about. A filter certified by NSF to remove chlorine isn’t going to be helpful if you need it to remove nitrates. Then, look for the NSF seal, Underwriters Laboratories’ “UL Water Quality” mark, or the Water Quality Association Gold Seal for added assurance that your filter will actually do what the box claims.

Our friend RJ talks about water filters!

Americans are all wet when it comes to water. We drank 8.7 billion gallons of bottled water in 2008 (most recent available data) at a cost of more than $12 billion, according to the International Bottled Water Association. That’s a lot of money for something that flows so freely.

By filtering your water, it’s possible to tap into fresh-tasting water without pouring money down the drain and clogging up landfills with empty bottles.

Most of San Diego’s water comes from the Colorado River and contains a heavy load of dissolved solids. While this isn’t a health concern, it does affect the taste.

“At the end of the day, people want a water filter that makes their water taste, smell and feel better,” said Elaine Montemarano, general manager of Superior Water, a San Diego water filtration company.

Water filter systems range widely in price and sophistication. To find the best filter for you, determine how much water you use and how pure you’d like it.

Pitcher

Cost: $20 to $40

How it works: The pitcher is filled with tap water, which seeps through a granulated-carbon filter. The carbon acts like a magnet so impurities (mostly chlorine) stick to its surface while water passes through.

Advantages:: Easy to use, inexpensive, no installation.

Disadvantages: Little water capacity. Must change filters often, and water drips out very slowly. Removes only some of the chlorine and few other chemicals.

Best for: Renters, households that don’t consume much water or don’t want to install a permanent system.

Faucet-mounted filter

Cost: $35 to $50, plus another $30 to $70 annually in replacement filters.

How it works: Tap water flows through a carbon filter faucet attachment to remove some contaminants.

Advantages: Inexpensive, fairly easy to install, filters more water than a pitcher, removes some organic contaminants that can give water a foul taste or odor.

Disadvantages: Filter cartridges need frequent changing and often clog. Filters water at slow rate.

Best for: Renters and people who don’t want permanent installation.

Under-sink carbon filter

Cost: $100-$400

How it works: The filter removes chlorine and some sediment from tap water, with a reserve tank under the sink. Often used with refrigerator-door drinking-water dispensers.

Advantages: Convenient. Filter cartridges last for a long time. Some have more than one filter for better contaminant removal. Fast flow rate.

Disadvantages: Requires hiring a professional to install and change filters every few months ($60 to $150 per filter change). Requires drilling into countertop.

Best for: People who consume a large quantity of water or have a water dispenser on their refrigerator door.

Under-sink reverse-osmosis filter

Cost: $250-$900. Renting an R-O system, about $25 to $50 per month including all maintenance, is an option.

How it works: Contains multiple filters, including a membrane filter that removes 95 percent to 99 percent of impurities in the water.

Advantages: Removes most contaminants. Long-lasting filters (change every two years). Removes arsenic and dissolved solids. Good for coffee makers and irons.

Disadvantages: Expensive. Requires professional to install and change filters ($200-plus charge). Hole must be drilled into countertop. Wastes three to five gallons of water to get one purified gallon. Slow flow rate.

Best for: Well owners. Those who consume a lot of water, want minerals removed, have contaminant problems.

Whole house water filter system

Cost: $2,000-$5,000

How it works: Installed at house water source, the multistage carbon filtration provides filtered water throughout the house. Reduces chlorine, ammonia and other chemicals and heavy metals.

Advantages: Filters drinking and bathing water. Filters large volumes of water quickly. Good for fishponds.

Disadvantages: Expensive.

Best for: People who find tap water too harsh for skin or hair and want filtered water on every faucet.

I reccomend calling FIltercon or going online to http://www.filtercon.com They treat you right, they make sure you have exactly what you want and they have great prices for everyone!

How do you get your drinking water? A great article by our friend, Zhai Yun Tan

Before you take a gulp of water, try to mentally trace where that water that just gushed out of your taps has been: How did it go from that weird-tasting raindrop to the clear, odorless water that is sitting in your glass now?

Safe drinking water is a privilege Americans often take for granted — until a health crisis like the one in Flint, Mich., happens that makes us think about where it comes from and how we get it.

Our drinking water comes from lakes, rivers and groundwater. For most Americans, the water then flows from intake points to a treatment plant, a storage tank, and then to our houses through various pipe systems.

The most common steps in water treatment used by nearly every utility company:

A typical water treatment process.

Annette Elizabeth Allen for NPR

  1. Coagulation and flocculation – Chemicals are added to the water. They bind with the dirt and dissolved particles, forming larger particles called floc.
  2. Sedimentation – The floc is heavy, so it settles to the bottom of the tank.
  3. Filtration – The clear water on top passes through filters composed of sand, gravel and charcoal to remove dissolved particles such as dust, parasites, bacteria, viruses and chemicals.
  4. Disinfection – Chlorine or chloramine is added to kill parasites, bacteria, viruses and germs. Fluorine is added to prevent tooth decay.

Various other chemicals can be added to adjust for hardness and pH levels or to prevent corrosion, based on the water source. But depending on where you are in the United States, there can be different challenges, and corresponding methods of treating drinking water. For example:

Lead Pipes Are Common In The Northeast And Midwest

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(Top) Older pipes can be treated with a chemical to prevent corrosion and contamination of the water supply. (Bottom) When Flint, Mich., changed its water source, it didn’t treat the water to prevent corrosion of the pipes, which contributed to high lead levels in the water.

Annette Elizabeth Allen for NPR

Lead pipes or fittings are a culprit in the current water crises in Flint, Baltimore and other cities. Many old water pipes are made of lead, which may leach into the water supply if preventive measures aren’t taken. According to EPA, even low levels of lead can cause behavior problems, slow growth and affect IQ levels.

While the most effective solution might be to replace lead pipes entirely, water utilities usually add some form of phosphate to the water supply. That forms a protective film between the lead pipe and the water flowing through it.

Flint failed to add orthophosphate to control corrosion when it switched water sources from the city of Detroit to the Flint River; water from the Flint River has eight times more chloride than Detroit’s, which is highly corrosive to the pipe.

Agricultural States May Suffer From High Levels Of Nitrate

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In farming communities across the country, water can be contaminated by fertilizer and livestock.

Annette Elizabeth Allen for NPR

Nitrate runoff in rivers and groundwater can be common in places with high levels of farming activities. Fertilizers, manure storage and septic systems are sources of this pollution. High levels of nitrate in drinking water can cause “blue-baby syndrome,” where infants younger than 6 months suffer from shortness of breath. If untreated, it might lead to death.

Des Moines often has to deal with treating high levels of nitrate in its rivers. The Des Moines Water Works utilityremoves it through an ion exchange process in one of its treatment plants.

Many Western States Drink Saltier Water

Water with high salinity is prevalent in the western part of the United States. In some places, the water can be too salty for drinking or other uses and needs to undergo desalination. These saline water sources include seawater and brackish groundwater.

Turning seawater into drinking water is a relatively new concept. The Carlsbad plant in California that opened last year is the largest seawater desalination plant, and some see it as a possible solution to the statewide drought.

Brackish groundwater has high levels of salt but not as much as seawater. Texas relies heavily on brackish groundwater as a water source.

There are two methods plants may use for desalination. One, used by Carlsbad, is called reverse osmosis; it forces water through semipermeable membranes under very high pressure.

The other is a thermal process that heats the water to form water vapor, which is then condensed and collected as freshwater, leaving the salt behind.

Waterborne Diseases Can Happen Anywhere

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there were 32 cases of drinking-water associated outbreaks from 2011 to 2012, the most recent time period for which they have been reported.

Most of it was Legionellosis, a disease typically spread by water droplets in the air. The remaining cases were associated with bacteria and viruses that can be killed by chlorine. To prevent such outbreaks, CDC emphasized the importance of ensuring a sufficient level of disinfectant, such as chlorine, is present in the water from the time it leaves the treatment center to when it arrives in our pipes.

Some utilities use ozone as a disinfectant to kill bacteria and viruses, a method some say is more effective than the usual route of using chlorine. Ozone is bubbled into the water in huge tanks, destroying illness-causing microorganisms. It also gets rid of taste and odor in the water.

Milwaukee, Wis., started using ozonation after an outbreak of Cryptosporidium in 1993 killed 69 people and sickened up to 403,000 residents. It was one of the largest outbreaks caused by a contaminated public water source, according to the CDC.

Some States Try To Protect Their Water At The Source

Watersheds are the areas where rivers, lakes and ponds drain into, and they’re a source of drinking water. Some cities, such as Seattle and New York, are famous for the regulations and programs they put in place to protect their watersheds.

New York City gets its water from multiple watersheds that are well-protected. The quality of the water is so good that it does not need to undergo filtration at the treatment plants.

Frank Whitney/Photographer’s Choice/Getty Images

In fact, New York City’s watershed protection is so good that it’s one of the five large cities in the country where the drinking water supply does not need to undergo filtration.

The city works with farmers and landowners upstream to reduce pollution and manage land. The Conservation Easement Program sells or donates land to conservation organizations, limiting the type of development that can occur on it permanently.

Although the water doesn’t go through filtration, it is still disinfected with chlorine and ultraviolet light, with the usual sludge of chemicals added to control pH and prevent corrosion.

The EPA regulates approximately 155,000 public water systems in the country, requiring utilities to conduct tests according to schedule and submit water quality data. On the other hand, over 15 million Americans rely on private wells — water quality from this source is not regulated by the EPA, but might be under state rules.

From the lake to the tap, water goes through many steps to become safe for us to drink. It is a crucial process that requires constant monitoring, and — as both history and current events show — it’s one that can be easily threatened by bacterial outbreaks, natural disasters and human activity.

Before you take a gulp of water, try to mentally trace where that water that just gushed out of your taps has been: How did it go from that weird-tasting raindrop to the clear, odorless water that is sitting in your glass now?

Safe drinking water is a privilege Americans often take for granted — until a health crisis like the one in Flint, Mich., happens that makes us think about where it comes from and how we get it.

Our drinking water comes from lakes, rivers and groundwater. For most Americans, the water then flows from intake points to a treatment plant, a storage tank, and then to our houses through various pipe systems.

The most common steps in water treatment used by nearly every utility company:

A typical water treatment process.

Annette Elizabeth Allen for NPR

  1. Coagulation and flocculation – Chemicals are added to the water. They bind with the dirt and dissolved particles, forming larger particles called floc.
  2. Sedimentation – The floc is heavy, so it settles to the bottom of the tank.
  3. Filtration – The clear water on top passes through filters composed of sand, gravel and charcoal to remove dissolved particles such as dust, parasites, bacteria, viruses and chemicals.
  4. Disinfection – Chlorine or chloramine is added to kill parasites, bacteria, viruses and germs. Fluorine is added to prevent tooth decay.

Various other chemicals can be added to adjust for hardness and pH levels or to prevent corrosion, based on the water source. But depending on where you are in the United States, there can be different challenges, and corresponding methods of treating drinking water. For example:

Lead Pipes Are Common In The Northeast And Midwest

Enlarge this image

(Top) Older pipes can be treated with a chemical to prevent corrosion and contamination of the water supply. (Bottom) When Flint, Mich., changed its water source, it didn’t treat the water to prevent corrosion of the pipes, which contributed to high lead levels in the water.

Annette Elizabeth Allen for NPR

Lead pipes or fittings are a culprit in the current water crises in Flint, Baltimore and other cities. Many old water pipes are made of lead, which may leach into the water supply if preventive measures aren’t taken. According to EPA, even low levels of lead can cause behavior problems, slow growth and affect IQ levels.

While the most effective solution might be to replace lead pipes entirely, water utilities usually add some form of phosphate to the water supply. That forms a protective film between the lead pipe and the water flowing through it.

Flint failed to add orthophosphate to control corrosion when it switched water sources from the city of Detroit to the Flint River; water from the Flint River has eight times more chloride than Detroit’s, which is highly corrosive to the pipe.

Agricultural States May Suffer From High Levels Of Nitrate

Enlarge this image

In farming communities across the country, water can be contaminated by fertilizer and livestock.

Annette Elizabeth Allen for NPR

Nitrate runoff in rivers and groundwater can be common in places with high levels of farming activities. Fertilizers, manure storage and septic systems are sources of this pollution. High levels of nitrate in drinking water can cause “blue-baby syndrome,” where infants younger than 6 months suffer from shortness of breath. If untreated, it might lead to death.

Des Moines often has to deal with treating high levels of nitrate in its rivers. The Des Moines Water Works utilityremoves it through an ion exchange process in one of its treatment plants.

Many Western States Drink Saltier Water

Water with high salinity is prevalent in the western part of the United States. In some places, the water can be too salty for drinking or other uses and needs to undergo desalination. These saline water sources include seawater and brackish groundwater.

Turning seawater into drinking water is a relatively new concept. The Carlsbad plant in California that opened last year is the largest seawater desalination plant, and some see it as a possible solution to the statewide drought.

Brackish groundwater has high levels of salt but not as much as seawater. Texas relies heavily on brackish groundwater as a water source.

There are two methods plants may use for desalination. One, used by Carlsbad, is called reverse osmosis; it forces water through semipermeable membranes under very high pressure.

The other is a thermal process that heats the water to form water vapor, which is then condensed and collected as freshwater, leaving the salt behind.

Waterborne Diseases Can Happen Anywhere

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there were 32 cases of drinking-water associated outbreaks from 2011 to 2012, the most recent time period for which they have been reported.

Most of it was Legionellosis, a disease typically spread by water droplets in the air. The remaining cases were associated with bacteria and viruses that can be killed by chlorine. To prevent such outbreaks, CDC emphasized the importance of ensuring a sufficient level of disinfectant, such as chlorine, is present in the water from the time it leaves the treatment center to when it arrives in our pipes.

Some utilities use ozone as a disinfectant to kill bacteria and viruses, a method some say is more effective than the usual route of using chlorine. Ozone is bubbled into the water in huge tanks, destroying illness-causing microorganisms. It also gets rid of taste and odor in the water.

Milwaukee, Wis., started using ozonation after an outbreak of Cryptosporidium in 1993 killed 69 people and sickened up to 403,000 residents. It was one of the largest outbreaks caused by a contaminated public water source, according to the CDC.

Some States Try To Protect Their Water At The Source

Watersheds are the areas where rivers, lakes and ponds drain into, and they’re a source of drinking water. Some cities, such as Seattle and New York, are famous for the regulations and programs they put in place to protect their watersheds.

New York City gets its water from multiple watersheds that are well-protected. The quality of the water is so good that it does not need to undergo filtration at the treatment plants.

Frank Whitney/Photographer’s Choice/Getty Images

In fact, New York City’s watershed protection is so good that it’s one of the five large cities in the country where the drinking water supply does not need to undergo filtration.

The city works with farmers and landowners upstream to reduce pollution and manage land. The Conservation Easement Program sells or donates land to conservation organizations, limiting the type of development that can occur on it permanently.

Although the water doesn’t go through filtration, it is still disinfected with chlorine and ultraviolet light, with the usual sludge of chemicals added to control pH and prevent corrosion.

The EPA regulates approximately 155,000 public water systems in the country, requiring utilities to conduct tests according to schedule and submit water quality data. On the other hand, over 15 million Americans rely on private wells — water quality from this source is not regulated by the EPA, but might be under state rules.

From the lake to the tap, water goes through many steps to become safe for us to drink. It is a crucial process that requires constant monitoring, and — as both history and current events show — it’s one that can be easily threatened by bacterial outbreaks, natural disasters and human activity.

Before you take a gulp of water, try to mentally trace where that water that just gushed out of your taps has been: How did it go from that weird-tasting raindrop to the clear, odorless water that is sitting in your glass now?

Safe drinking water is a privilege Americans often take for granted — until a health crisis like the one in Flint, Mich., happens that makes us think about where it comes from and how we get it.

Our drinking water comes from lakes, rivers and groundwater. For most Americans, the water then flows from intake points to a treatment plant, a storage tank, and then to our houses through various pipe systems.

The most common steps in water treatment used by nearly every utility company:

A typical water treatment process.

Annette Elizabeth Allen for NPR

  1. Coagulation and flocculation – Chemicals are added to the water. They bind with the dirt and dissolved particles, forming larger particles called floc.
  2. Sedimentation – The floc is heavy, so it settles to the bottom of the tank.
  3. Filtration – The clear water on top passes through filters composed of sand, gravel and charcoal to remove dissolved particles such as dust, parasites, bacteria, viruses and chemicals.
  4. Disinfection – Chlorine or chloramine is added to kill parasites, bacteria, viruses and germs. Fluorine is added to prevent tooth decay.

Various other chemicals can be added to adjust for hardness and pH levels or to prevent corrosion, based on the water source. But depending on where you are in the United States, there can be different challenges, and corresponding methods of treating drinking water. For example:

Lead Pipes Are Common In The Northeast And Midwest

Enlarge this image

(Top) Older pipes can be treated with a chemical to prevent corrosion and contamination of the water supply. (Bottom) When Flint, Mich., changed its water source, it didn’t treat the water to prevent corrosion of the pipes, which contributed to high lead levels in the water.

Annette Elizabeth Allen for NPR

Lead pipes or fittings are a culprit in the current water crises in Flint, Baltimore and other cities. Many old water pipes are made of lead, which may leach into the water supply if preventive measures aren’t taken. According to EPA, even low levels of lead can cause behavior problems, slow growth and affect IQ levels.

While the most effective solution might be to replace lead pipes entirely, water utilities usually add some form of phosphate to the water supply. That forms a protective film between the lead pipe and the water flowing through it.

Flint failed to add orthophosphate to control corrosion when it switched water sources from the city of Detroit to the Flint River; water from the Flint River has eight times more chloride than Detroit’s, which is highly corrosive to the pipe.

Agricultural States May Suffer From High Levels Of Nitrate

Enlarge this image

In farming communities across the country, water can be contaminated by fertilizer and livestock.

Annette Elizabeth Allen for NPR

Nitrate runoff in rivers and groundwater can be common in places with high levels of farming activities. Fertilizers, manure storage and septic systems are sources of this pollution. High levels of nitrate in drinking water can cause “blue-baby syndrome,” where infants younger than 6 months suffer from shortness of breath. If untreated, it might lead to death.

Des Moines often has to deal with treating high levels of nitrate in its rivers. The Des Moines Water Works utilityremoves it through an ion exchange process in one of its treatment plants.

Many Western States Drink Saltier Water

Water with high salinity is prevalent in the western part of the United States. In some places, the water can be too salty for drinking or other uses and needs to undergo desalination. These saline water sources include seawater and brackish groundwater.

Turning seawater into drinking water is a relatively new concept. The Carlsbad plant in California that opened last year is the largest seawater desalination plant, and some see it as a possible solution to the statewide drought.

Brackish groundwater has high levels of salt but not as much as seawater. Texas relies heavily on brackish groundwater as a water source.

There are two methods plants may use for desalination. One, used by Carlsbad, is called reverse osmosis; it forces water through semipermeable membranes under very high pressure.

The other is a thermal process that heats the water to form water vapor, which is then condensed and collected as freshwater, leaving the salt behind.

Waterborne Diseases Can Happen Anywhere

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there were 32 cases of drinking-water associated outbreaks from 2011 to 2012, the most recent time period for which they have been reported.

Most of it was Legionellosis, a disease typically spread by water droplets in the air. The remaining cases were associated with bacteria and viruses that can be killed by chlorine. To prevent such outbreaks, CDC emphasized the importance of ensuring a sufficient level of disinfectant, such as chlorine, is present in the water from the time it leaves the treatment center to when it arrives in our pipes.

Some utilities use ozone as a disinfectant to kill bacteria and viruses, a method some say is more effective than the usual route of using chlorine. Ozone is bubbled into the water in huge tanks, destroying illness-causing microorganisms. It also gets rid of taste and odor in the water.

Milwaukee, Wis., started using ozonation after an outbreak of Cryptosporidium in 1993 killed 69 people and sickened up to 403,000 residents. It was one of the largest outbreaks caused by a contaminated public water source, according to the CDC.

Some States Try To Protect Their Water At The Source

Watersheds are the areas where rivers, lakes and ponds drain into, and they’re a source of drinking water. Some cities, such as Seattle and New York, are famous for the regulations and programs they put in place to protect their watersheds.

New York City gets its water from multiple watersheds that are well-protected. The quality of the water is so good that it does not need to undergo filtration at the treatment plants.

Frank Whitney/Photographer’s Choice/Getty Images

In fact, New York City’s watershed protection is so good that it’s one of the five large cities in the country where the drinking water supply does not need to undergo filtration.

The city works with farmers and landowners upstream to reduce pollution and manage land. The Conservation Easement Program sells or donates land to conservation organizations, limiting the type of development that can occur on it permanently.

Although the water doesn’t go through filtration, it is still disinfected with chlorine and ultraviolet light, with the usual sludge of chemicals added to control pH and prevent corrosion.

The EPA regulates approximately 155,000 public water systems in the country, requiring utilities to conduct tests according to schedule and submit water quality data. On the other hand, over 15 million Americans rely on private wells — water quality from this source is not regulated by the EPA, but might be under state rules.

From the lake to the tap, water goes through many steps to become safe for us to drink. It is a crucial process that requires constant monitoring, and — as both history and current events show — it’s one that can be easily threatened by bacterial outbreaks, natural disasters and human activity.

One of the best books on water!

Below is a link to pages of an amazing book that you need to read if you ever wondered about water and what it is capable of. It sustains life… but so much more. Click this link to read an amazing book!

https://books.google.com/books/about/The_Holy_Order_of_Water.html?id=iZX8g_wvpJ4C&printsec=frontcover&source=kp_read_button&hl=en#v=onepage&q&f=false

 

 

 

 

An article about the perals of tap and wonders of filtered water from Dr. Joseph Mercola

By Dr. Mercola

With all the different types of water out there and all the hype that goes with each, it can be very easy to get confused about which types of water are really best for your health. And, if you find yourself struggling with the environmental concerns of bottled water versus the dangerous chemicals in tap water, I understand.

That’s why I created this page to help clear up some confusion and help you take control of your health.

Symptoms of Dehydration

Since most of you are no longer tuned in to your bodies the way your ancestors were hundreds of years ago, you may be overlooking your body’s many cries for water.

There is a silent and growing epidemic of chronic dehydration. So many suffer from it yet are simply unaware of the symptoms.

Are you one of them?

The major symptoms of dehydration are thirst, dry skin, dark colored urine and fatigue but take a look at some commonlyoverlooked symptoms of chronic dehydration.

They are:

  • Digestive disturbances such as heartburn and constipation
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Autoimmune disease such as chronic fatigue syndrome and multiple sclerosis
  • Premature aging
  • High cholesterol
  • Weight gain

Types of Water – How Your Choice Makes the Difference

When it comes to water, there’s more to choose form than simply tap versus bottled.

Let’s closely examine each so you can make informed decisions about your water and your health.

Tap Water – Danger in Every Glass

Plain old tap water: It’s easy. It’s convenient and it comes right out of your kitchen faucet. However, as I’m sure you’ve heard, most tap water is contaminated with a host of pollutants that increase your risk of serious health problems.

Let’s take a look at some of these contaminants and how they can adversely affect the health of you and your family.

Arsenic

As I’ve been stating in my articles about water since 2001, the level of arsenic in US tap water is incredibly high. This poisonous element is a powerful carcinogenic, which has been linked to an increased risk of the development of several types of cancer. In 2001 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lowered the maximum level of arsenic permitted in drinking water from 50 ug/L to 10 ug/L due to the established cancer risk.

The Natural Resources Defense Council estimates as many as 56 million Americans living in 25 states drink water with arsenic at unsafe levels. For more information, see the USGS website, which offers maps showing where and to what extent arsenic occurs in ground water across the United States.

Aluminum

You may have heard how aluminum increases your risk for Alzheimer’s disease, but did you also know that the aluminum found in your municipal water supply can cause a wide variety of other health problems?

Aluminum has been linked to:

  • Hyperactvity
  • Learning disabilities in children
  • Gastrointestinal disease
  • Skin problems
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Liver disease

Fluoride

If you still believe fluoride in your drinking water prevents cavities and helps build strong teeth, you’ve fallen for a cleverly devised mass-deception.. As this recent study done on children in India shows, fluoride is anything but a cavity fighter. fluoride is a well-known toxin that actually leads to an increased risk of cavities and can cause a wide range of health problems, including weakening your immune system and accelerating aging due to cellular damage.

Prescription and OTC Drugs

You may have been told that if you dispose of your unwanted or expired prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the trash instead of the toilet that you do not run any risk of it ending up in the water supply. Unfortunately, this is not the case.

As I mentioned in this previous article, water that drains through landfills, known as leach rate, eventually ends up in rivers. Although not all states source drinking water from rivers, many do.

According to studies, human cells do not grow normally when exposed to even minute amounts of prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Some drugs that were never meant to be combined are mixed together in the drinking water you consume every day. Millions of people have drug allergies. Are you among them? If so, how do you know the strange symptoms you’ve been experiencing are not due to ingesting small doses of the drugs you’re allergic to from the water?

Pregnant women should be especially wary. The toxic substances you take into your body from tap water will have a negative effect on the development of your unborn child.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs)

Most tap community water supplies are treated with chlorine and although it may not be the healthiest element you can consume, it is far better for you than what is left behind. In my video, “Tap Water Toxins – is Your Water Trying to Kill You?“, I interview water filtration pioneer Robert Slovak about the dangers of disinfection byproducts.

Disinfection byproducts are the result of disinfecting water with chlorine. It is important to note that while consuming chlorine is certainly not healthy, DBPs are TEN THOUSAND TIMES more dangerous!

In addition to being a powerful carcinogenic, DPBs have also been linked to liver, kidney and nervous system problems.

So, Bottled Water is the Way to Go, Right?

If you’re thinking you’re safe from all of the harmful contaminants I listed above because you drink bottled water instead of tap water, I’m afraid I must be the bearer of some bad news:

40 percent of bottled water is bottled TAP WATER!

Yes, you read correctly. As I stated in my article about the deceptions of bottled water, 40 percent of bottled water is just bottled tap water, which may or may not have received additional filtration.

Also, drinking from plastic bottles is not a good idea.

Plastic bottles contain a chemical called bisphenol A or BPA, which is a synthetic hormone disruptor that has been linked to serious health problems such as:

  • Learning and behavioral problems
  • Altered immune system function
  • Prostate and breast cancer
  • Risk of obesity
  • Early puberty in both genders

Aside from the health risks, the devastating impact bottled water has had on our ecosystem is staggering!

Distilled Water – Use with Caution

Some health conscious people have been misled into believing that distilled water is healthy for them. As I’ve stated before, this is simply not true.

The problem with distilled water is that it is boiled and evaporated away from its dissolved minerals. The water then becomes acidic and seeks to balance itself by drawing minerals right out of your body It will also draw out contaminants from the container it’s stored in for this same reason.

What’s worse, any contaminant in the water that vaporizes at a lower temperature than the water, such as volatile organic compounds, like disinfection byproducts that are thousands of times as toxic as chlorine, will be condensed and actuallyconcentrated in the finished distilled water. So what you end up with is water that contains even more dangerous contaminants than what you started with!

I only recommend using distilled water for a short period of time and only for the purpose of detoxification, as this water can help pull toxins from your body. Drinking it long-term, however, will most likely invite health problems.

Alkaline Water

In my interview with water filtration expert, Houston Tomasz, I asked for his thoughts on the growing use of alkaline water. There are several potential problems with alkaline water.

First of all, most water ionizers and alkalizers are marketed by multi-level marketing (MLM) companies with questionable ethics

Some people experience an initial “high” when they start drinking alkaline water. This can easily be attributed to detoxification, and the fact that they are likely just becoming better hydrated.

Detoxification is about the only benefit of alkaline water, and this benefit is limited to very SHORT TERM USE (no more than a week or two). An additional concern is that many individuals have stomach dysfunctions like GERD or ulcers that are largely related to having too little stomach acid. Long-term use of alkaline or ionized water can interfere with your body’s natural digestive process by reducing the acid needed to properly break down and absorb food. This could then lead to an upset of your body’s good bacteria, which can then open the door to parasitic infection, ulcers and malabsorption.

For more information, please review my special report on this topic.

“Vitamin” Waters – Do NOT Be Fooled!

If you’ve recently switched from soda to vitamin water because you believed it to be a healthier choice, you may be disappointed by what I have to say about them:

Vitamin waters are nothing more than a clever marketing scheme designed to promote a product that is just as unhealthy as soda!

Vitamin waters contain dangerous high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), artificial colors, additives, preservatives and caffeine.What’s even worse is these manufacturers use distilled water to make their products, which, as you’ve read above, is one of the worst types of water you can put into your body!

Now that you know which types of water to avoid, let’s take a look at the water you should be drinking for optimal health!

Filtered Tap Water – Getting to the Gold

The most economical and environmentally sound choice you and your family can make is to purchase and install a water filter for your home. I recommend three different types of water filters and weigh the pros and cons of each. Let’s take a brief look below.

Reverse Osmosis Filter

In addition to removing chlorine, inorganic, and organic contaminants in your water, an RO filter will also remove about 80 percent of the fluoride and most DPBs. The major drawback is the expense of installing an RO filter as most need a plumber to get up and running.

Ion Exchange Filter

Ion exchange is designed to remove dissolved salts in the water, such as calcium. This system actually softens the water or exchanges natural-forming mineral ions in the water with its own ions, thereby neutralizing their harmful effect of creating scale build-up.

The ion exchange system was originally used in boilers and other industrial situations before becoming popular in home purifying units, which usually combine the system with carbon for greater effectiveness.

Granular Carbon and Carbon Block Filters

These are the most common types of counter top and under counter water filters.

Granular carbon filters and carbon block systems perform the same process of contaminant removal, adsorption, which is the chemical or physical bond of a contaminant to the surface of the filter media.

Granular activated carbon is recognized by the EPA as the best available technology for the removal of organic chemicals like herbicides, pesticides and industrial chemicals. However, one of the downfalls of granular carbon filters is that the loose material inside can channel–the water creates pathways through the carbon material, escaping filtering.

Carbon block filters offer the same superior filtering ability but are compressed with the carbon medium in a solid form. This eliminates channeling and gives the ability to precisely combine multiple media in a sub-micron filter cartridge. By combining different media, the ability to selectively remove a wide range of contaminants can be achieved.

Ideally, you want a filtration system that offers a variety of methods to remove different contaminants. Most systems do not address a combination of organic, inorganic, cyst, sediment and metals.

I’m pleased to announce that I have located a family of filters that I believe are the best filters on the market in terms of effectiveness, value, and ease of use. They are all manufactured in the U.S. under exclusive contract with a company specializing in advanced water treatment products, and will include both countertop and under-counter filters.

The Pure & Clean line of filters will be available in my online store around mid-December.

Living Water – Keeping the Balance

In choosing the right type of water for you and your family, you want to aim for pH balance. Distilled water is too acidic and alkaline water is too alkaline. The ideal pH of your water should be between 6.5 to 7.5, which is neutral.

Mountain spring water is in this ideal range. It is some of the healthiest water on the planet because it is “living water”. Living water, like “living food is in its raw, natural state the way nature intended.

One of the main reasons I am such an advocate for eating raw, organic vegetables is because these “living foods” contain biophotons, small units of light stored by all organic organisms, including you.

Gravity-fed spring water is alive in much the same way. When you take this vital energy into your body, you are re-charging it with health and encouraging it to return to a whole and balanced state.

Now, when I mention mountain spring water, I don’t mean the two-gallon jugs you see sitting on your grocery store shelf. I’m talking about water you bottle yourself from a gravity-fed spring. There’s a great website called FindaSpring.com where you can find a natural spring in your area. This is a great way to get back to nature and teach your children about health and the sources of clean water.

The best part is that most of these spring water sources are free!

It is important to bring either clear polyethylene or glass containers on your trip to collect the water so no unsafe chemicals can contaminate your pure drinking water on the way home. If you choose to use glass bottles, be sure to wrap them in towels to keep them from breaking in the car.

How Much Water Should You Drink?

So, how much pure filtered or spring water should you drink per day?

Six glasses? Eight?

Well, here’s a good rule of thumb:

You should be drinking enough water to turn your urine a light-colored yellow.

If you are outside on a hot day or engaging in strenuous activity, it is advisable to increase your water intake as needed. It is also important to note that as you age, your thirst mechanism works less efficiently. Older adults need to pay more attention to the color of their urine to see if their water intake is adequate.

Coconut Water and Vegetable Juicing – Adding a Little Variety

As I mentioned in a previous article, coconuts are an excellent source of fresh, pure water and electrolytes. Coconuts are also rich in lauric acid, which is known for its immune-boosting as well as its antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal properties so it’s an ideal choice when you’re sick.

An even better pure healthy water is vegetable juicing. I recommend buying pesticide-free, organic vegetables for optimal nutritional benefit.

Health Benefits of Drinking Pure Water

I can’t say enough about the health benefits of drinking pure water. Here are only a few of the many health benefits you and your family will enjoy once you make the switch to pure water:

  • Maintain a healthy body weight
  • Properly digest food and absorb nutrients from food
  • Have healthy, glowing skin
  • Decrease muscle and joint inflammation
  • Have better circulation
  • Detoxify your body naturally

Finally, the extensively researched and fascinating book, Your Body’s Many Cries for Water, should be required reading by all, and definitely belongs on every health care practitioner’s bookshelf.

By Dr. Mercola

With all the different types of water out there and all the hype that goes with each, it can be very easy to get confused about which types of water are really best for your health. And, if you find yourself struggling with the environmental concerns of bottled water versus the dangerous chemicals in tap water, I understand.

That’s why I created this page to help clear up some confusion and help you take control of your health.

Symptoms of Dehydration

Since most of you are no longer tuned in to your bodies the way your ancestors were hundreds of years ago, you may be overlooking your body’s many cries for water.

There is a silent and growing epidemic of chronic dehydration. So many suffer from it yet are simply unaware of the symptoms.

Are you one of them?

The major symptoms of dehydration are thirst, dry skin, dark colored urine and fatigue but take a look at some commonlyoverlooked symptoms of chronic dehydration.

They are:

  • Digestive disturbances such as heartburn and constipation
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Autoimmune disease such as chronic fatigue syndrome and multiple sclerosis
  • Premature aging
  • High cholesterol
  • Weight gain

Types of Water – How Your Choice Makes the Difference

When it comes to water, there’s more to choose form than simply tap versus bottled.

Let’s closely examine each so you can make informed decisions about your water and your health.

Tap Water – Danger in Every Glass

Plain old tap water: It’s easy. It’s convenient and it comes right out of your kitchen faucet. However, as I’m sure you’ve heard, most tap water is contaminated with a host of pollutants that increase your risk of serious health problems.

Let’s take a look at some of these contaminants and how they can adversely affect the health of you and your family.

Arsenic

As I’ve been stating in my articles about water since 2001, the level of arsenic in US tap water is incredibly high. This poisonous element is a powerful carcinogenic, which has been linked to an increased risk of the development of several types of cancer. In 2001 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) lowered the maximum level of arsenic permitted in drinking water from 50 ug/L to 10 ug/L due to the established cancer risk.

The Natural Resources Defense Council estimates as many as 56 million Americans living in 25 states drink water with arsenic at unsafe levels. For more information, see the USGS website, which offers maps showing where and to what extent arsenic occurs in ground water across the United States.

Aluminum

You may have heard how aluminum increases your risk for Alzheimer’s disease, but did you also know that the aluminum found in your municipal water supply can cause a wide variety of other health problems?

Aluminum has been linked to:

  • Hyperactvity
  • Learning disabilities in children
  • Gastrointestinal disease
  • Skin problems
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Liver disease

Fluoride

If you still believe fluoride in your drinking water prevents cavities and helps build strong teeth, you’ve fallen for a cleverly devised mass-deception.. As this recent study done on children in India shows, fluoride is anything but a cavity fighter. fluoride is a well-known toxin that actually leads to an increased risk of cavities and can cause a wide range of health problems, including weakening your immune system and accelerating aging due to cellular damage.

Prescription and OTC Drugs

You may have been told that if you dispose of your unwanted or expired prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drugs in the trash instead of the toilet that you do not run any risk of it ending up in the water supply. Unfortunately, this is not the case.

As I mentioned in this previous article, water that drains through landfills, known as leach rate, eventually ends up in rivers. Although not all states source drinking water from rivers, many do.

According to studies, human cells do not grow normally when exposed to even minute amounts of prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Some drugs that were never meant to be combined are mixed together in the drinking water you consume every day. Millions of people have drug allergies. Are you among them? If so, how do you know the strange symptoms you’ve been experiencing are not due to ingesting small doses of the drugs you’re allergic to from the water?

Pregnant women should be especially wary. The toxic substances you take into your body from tap water will have a negative effect on the development of your unborn child.

Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs)

Most tap community water supplies are treated with chlorine and although it may not be the healthiest element you can consume, it is far better for you than what is left behind. In my video, “Tap Water Toxins – is Your Water Trying to Kill You?“, I interview water filtration pioneer Robert Slovak about the dangers of disinfection byproducts.

Disinfection byproducts are the result of disinfecting water with chlorine. It is important to note that while consuming chlorine is certainly not healthy, DBPs are TEN THOUSAND TIMES more dangerous!

In addition to being a powerful carcinogenic, DPBs have also been linked to liver, kidney and nervous system problems.

So, Bottled Water is the Way to Go, Right?

If you’re thinking you’re safe from all of the harmful contaminants I listed above because you drink bottled water instead of tap water, I’m afraid I must be the bearer of some bad news:

40 percent of bottled water is bottled TAP WATER!

Yes, you read correctly. As I stated in my article about the deceptions of bottled water, 40 percent of bottled water is just bottled tap water, which may or may not have received additional filtration.

Also, drinking from plastic bottles is not a good idea.

Plastic bottles contain a chemical called bisphenol A or BPA, which is a synthetic hormone disruptor that has been linked to serious health problems such as:

  • Learning and behavioral problems
  • Altered immune system function
  • Prostate and breast cancer
  • Risk of obesity
  • Early puberty in both genders

Aside from the health risks, the devastating impact bottled water has had on our ecosystem is staggering!

Distilled Water – Use with Caution

Some health conscious people have been misled into believing that distilled water is healthy for them. As I’ve stated before, this is simply not true.

The problem with distilled water is that it is boiled and evaporated away from its dissolved minerals. The water then becomes acidic and seeks to balance itself by drawing minerals right out of your body It will also draw out contaminants from the container it’s stored in for this same reason.

What’s worse, any contaminant in the water that vaporizes at a lower temperature than the water, such as volatile organic compounds, like disinfection byproducts that are thousands of times as toxic as chlorine, will be condensed and actuallyconcentrated in the finished distilled water. So what you end up with is water that contains even more dangerous contaminants than what you started with!

I only recommend using distilled water for a short period of time and only for the purpose of detoxification, as this water can help pull toxins from your body. Drinking it long-term, however, will most likely invite health problems.

Alkaline Water

In my interview with water filtration expert, Houston Tomasz, I asked for his thoughts on the growing use of alkaline water. There are several potential problems with alkaline water.

First of all, most water ionizers and alkalizers are marketed by multi-level marketing (MLM) companies with questionable ethics

Some people experience an initial “high” when they start drinking alkaline water. This can easily be attributed to detoxification, and the fact that they are likely just becoming better hydrated.

Detoxification is about the only benefit of alkaline water, and this benefit is limited to very SHORT TERM USE (no more than a week or two). An additional concern is that many individuals have stomach dysfunctions like GERD or ulcers that are largely related to having too little stomach acid. Long-term use of alkaline or ionized water can interfere with your body’s natural digestive process by reducing the acid needed to properly break down and absorb food. This could then lead to an upset of your body’s good bacteria, which can then open the door to parasitic infection, ulcers and malabsorption.

For more information, please review my special report on this topic.

“Vitamin” Waters – Do NOT Be Fooled!

If you’ve recently switched from soda to vitamin water because you believed it to be a healthier choice, you may be disappointed by what I have to say about them:

Vitamin waters are nothing more than a clever marketing scheme designed to promote a product that is just as unhealthy as soda!

Vitamin waters contain dangerous high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), artificial colors, additives, preservatives and caffeine.What’s even worse is these manufacturers use distilled water to make their products, which, as you’ve read above, is one of the worst types of water you can put into your body!

Now that you know which types of water to avoid, let’s take a look at the water you should be drinking for optimal health!

Filtered Tap Water – Getting to the Gold

The most economical and environmentally sound choice you and your family can make is to purchase and install a water filter for your home. I recommend three different types of water filters and weigh the pros and cons of each. Let’s take a brief look below.

Reverse Osmosis Filter

In addition to removing chlorine, inorganic, and organic contaminants in your water, an RO filter will also remove about 80 percent of the fluoride and most DPBs. The major drawback is the expense of installing an RO filter as most need a plumber to get up and running.

Ion Exchange Filter

Ion exchange is designed to remove dissolved salts in the water, such as calcium. This system actually softens the water or exchanges natural-forming mineral ions in the water with its own ions, thereby neutralizing their harmful effect of creating scale build-up.

The ion exchange system was originally used in boilers and other industrial situations before becoming popular in home purifying units, which usually combine the system with carbon for greater effectiveness.

Granular Carbon and Carbon Block Filters

These are the most common types of counter top and under counter water filters.

Granular carbon filters and carbon block systems perform the same process of contaminant removal, adsorption, which is the chemical or physical bond of a contaminant to the surface of the filter media.

Granular activated carbon is recognized by the EPA as the best available technology for the removal of organic chemicals like herbicides, pesticides and industrial chemicals. However, one of the downfalls of granular carbon filters is that the loose material inside can channel–the water creates pathways through the carbon material, escaping filtering.

Carbon block filters offer the same superior filtering ability but are compressed with the carbon medium in a solid form. This eliminates channeling and gives the ability to precisely combine multiple media in a sub-micron filter cartridge. By combining different media, the ability to selectively remove a wide range of contaminants can be achieved.

Ideally, you want a filtration system that offers a variety of methods to remove different contaminants. Most systems do not address a combination of organic, inorganic, cyst, sediment and metals.

I’m pleased to announce that I have located a family of filters that I believe are the best filters on the market in terms of effectiveness, value, and ease of use. They are all manufactured in the U.S. under exclusive contract with a company specializing in advanced water treatment products, and will include both countertop and under-counter filters.

The Pure & Clean line of filters will be available in my online store around mid-December.

Living Water – Keeping the Balance

In choosing the right type of water for you and your family, you want to aim for pH balance. Distilled water is too acidic and alkaline water is too alkaline. The ideal pH of your water should be between 6.5 to 7.5, which is neutral.

Mountain spring water is in this ideal range. It is some of the healthiest water on the planet because it is “living water”. Living water, like “living food is in its raw, natural state the way nature intended.

One of the main reasons I am such an advocate for eating raw, organic vegetables is because these “living foods” contain biophotons, small units of light stored by all organic organisms, including you.

Gravity-fed spring water is alive in much the same way. When you take this vital energy into your body, you are re-charging it with health and encouraging it to return to a whole and balanced state.

Now, when I mention mountain spring water, I don’t mean the two-gallon jugs you see sitting on your grocery store shelf. I’m talking about water you bottle yourself from a gravity-fed spring. There’s a great website called FindaSpring.com where you can find a natural spring in your area. This is a great way to get back to nature and teach your children about health and the sources of clean water.

The best part is that most of these spring water sources are free!

It is important to bring either clear polyethylene or glass containers on your trip to collect the water so no unsafe chemicals can contaminate your pure drinking water on the way home. If you choose to use glass bottles, be sure to wrap them in towels to keep them from breaking in the car.

How Much Water Should You Drink?

So, how much pure filtered or spring water should you drink per day?

Six glasses? Eight?

Well, here’s a good rule of thumb:

You should be drinking enough water to turn your urine a light-colored yellow.

If you are outside on a hot day or engaging in strenuous activity, it is advisable to increase your water intake as needed. It is also important to note that as you age, your thirst mechanism works less efficiently. Older adults need to pay more attention to the color of their urine to see if their water intake is adequate.

Coconut Water and Vegetable Juicing – Adding a Little Variety

As I mentioned in a previous article, coconuts are an excellent source of fresh, pure water and electrolytes. Coconuts are also rich in lauric acid, which is known for its immune-boosting as well as its antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal properties so it’s an ideal choice when you’re sick.

An even better pure healthy water is vegetable juicing. I recommend buying pesticide-free, organic vegetables for optimal nutritional benefit.

Health Benefits of Drinking Pure Water

I can’t say enough about the health benefits of drinking pure water. Here are only a few of the many health benefits you and your family will enjoy once you make the switch to pure water:

  • Maintain a healthy body weight
  • Properly digest food and absorb nutrients from food
  • Have healthy, glowing skin
  • Decrease muscle and joint inflammation
  • Have better circulation
  • Detoxify your body naturally

Finally, the extensively researched and fascinating book, Your Body’s Many Cries for Water, should be required reading by all, and definitely belongs on every health care practitioner’s bookshelf.

Water AND Weight Loss

For a long time, drinking water has been thought to help with weight loss.

In fact, 30–59% of US adults who try to lose weight increase their water intake (1, 2).

Many studies show that drinking more water may benefit weight loss and maintenance (3).

This article explains how drinking water can help you lose weight.

Drinking Water Can Make You Burn More Calories

Most of the studies listed below looked at the effect of drinking one, 0.5 liter (17 oz) serving of water.

Drinking water increases the amount of calories you burn, which is known as resting energy expenditure (4).

In adults, resting energy expenditure has been shown to increase by 24–30% within 10 minutes of drinking water. This lasts at least 60 minutes (5, 6).

Supporting this, one study of overweight and obese children found a 25% increase in resting energy expenditure after drinking cold water (7).

A study of overweight women examined the effects of increasing water intake to over 1 liter (34 oz) per day. They found that over a 12-month period, this resulted in an extra 2 kg (4.4 lbs) of weight loss (8).

Since these women didn’t make any lifestyle changes except to drink more water, these results are very impressive.

Additionally, both of these studies indicate that drinking 0.5 liters (17 oz) of water results in an extra 23 calories burned. On a yearly basis, that sums up to roughly 17,000 calories — or over 2 kg (4.4 lbs) of fat.

Several other studies have monitored overweight people who drank 1-1.5 liters (34–50 oz) of water daily for a few weeks. They found a significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and body fat (8, 9, 10).

These results may be even more impressive when the water is cold. When you drink cold water, your body uses extra calories to warm the water up to body temperature.

 

Bottom Line: Drinking 0.5 liters (17 oz) of water may increase the amount of calories burned for at least an hour. Some studies show that this can lead to modest weight loss.
Drinking Water Before Meals Can Reduce Appetite

Some people claim that drinking water before a meal reduces appetite.

There actually seems to be some truth behind this, but almost exclusively in middle-aged and older adults (11).

Studies of older adults have shown that drinking water before each meal may increase weight loss by 2 kg (4.4 lbs) over a 12-week period (4, 11).

In one study, middle-aged overweight and obese participants who drank water before each meal lost 44% more weight, compared to a group that did not drink more water (4).

Another study also showed that drinking water before breakfast reduced the amount of calories consumed during the meal by 13% (12).

Although this may be very beneficial for middle-aged and older people, studies of younger individuals have not shown the same impressive reduction in calorie intake.

Bottom Line: Drinking water before meals may reduce appetite in middle-aged and older individuals. This decreases calorie intake, leading to weight loss.
Drinking More Water is Linked to Reduced Calorie Intake and a Lower Risk of Weight Gain

Since water is naturally calorie-free, it is generally linked with reduced calorie intake.

This is mainly because you then drink water instead of other beverages, which are often high in calories and sugar (13, 14, 15).

Observational studies have shown that people who drink mostly water have up to a 9% (or 200 calories) lower calorie intake, on average (16, 17).

Drinking water may also help prevent long-term weight gain. In general, the average person gains about 1.45 kg (3.2 lbs) every 4 years (18).

This amount may be reduced by:

Adding 1 cup of water: Increasing your daily water consumption by 1 cup may reduce this weight gain by 0.13 kg (0.23 lbs).
Replacing other drinks with water: Substituting a serving of a sugar-sweetened beverage with 1 cup of water may reduce the 4-year weight gain by 0.5 kg (1.1 lbs).
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It is especially important to encourage children to drink water, as it can help prevent them from becoming overweight or obese (17, 3).

A recent, school-based study aimed to reduce obesity rates by encouraging children to drink water. They installed water fountains in 17 schools and provided classroom lessons about water consumption for 2nd and 3rd graders.

After one school year, the risk of obesity had been reduced by a whopping 31% in the schools where water intake was increased (19).

Bottom Line: Drinking more water may lead to decreased calorie intake and reduce the risk of long-term weight gain and obesity, especially in children.
How Much Water Should You Drink?

Many health authorities recommend drinking eight, 8-oz glasses of water (about 2 liters) per day.

However, this number is completely random. As with so many things, water requirements depend entirely on the individual (20).

For example, people who sweat a lot or exercise regularly may need more water than those who are not very active.

Older people and breast-feeding mothers also need to monitor their water intake more closely (21).

Keep in mind that you also get water from many foods and beverages, such as coffee, tea, meat, fish, milk, and especially fruits and vegetables.

As a good rule of thumb, you should always drink water when you’re thirsty, and drink enough to quench your thirst.

If you find you have a headache, are in a bad mood, are constantly hungry or have trouble concentrating, then you may suffer from mild dehydration. Drinking more water may help fix this (22, 23, 24).

Based on the studies, drinking 1-2 liters of water per day should be sufficient to help with weight loss.

Here’s how much water you should drink, in different measurements:

Liters: 1–2.
Ounces: 34–67.
Glasses (8-oz): 4–8.
However, this is just a general guideline. Some people may need less, while others may need a lot more.

Also, it is not recommended to drink too much water either, as it may cause water toxicity. This has even caused death in extreme cases, such as during water drinking contests.

Bottom Line: According to the studies, 1–2 liters of water per day is enough to assist with weight loss, especially when consumed before meals.
Take Home Message

Water can be really helpful for weight loss.

It is 100% calorie-free, helps you burn more calories and may even suppress your appetite if consumed before meals.

The benefits are even greater when you replace sugary beverages with water. It is a very easy way to cut back on sugar and calories.

However, keep in mind that you’re going to have to do a lot more than just drink water if you need to lose a significant amount of weight. Water is just one, very small piece of the puzzle.